Development and Validation of a Scale to Assess the Factors Contributing towards School Refusal Behavior

Faseeha Khursheed, Attiya Inam, Muhammad Abiodullah

School refusal behavior is a serious issue in Pakistan which has remained unnoticed. To understand the intensity of the issue, it is important to understand the school-related factors for school refusal. There was no tool available to study these factors in cultural context of Pakistan. This study aimed to develop a scale to measure different dimensions of school factors causing school refusal behavior among middle school students. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected for this purpose. Purposive sampling technique was used to recruit 520middle school teachers. A series of exploratory factor analyses was conducted and four dimensions were extracted which were further reduced to three final dimensions including school environment, teachers’ classroom management and teacher-student relationship during confirmatory factor analysis. The scale showed high internal consistency and reliability. The Cronbach alpha reliability of the 16items (five -Likert point) scale was 0.74.  This scale will help to study all aspects of school factors contributing to school refusal behavior in Pakistan which was not available before.

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