Effect of Examination on Instructional Practices of Elementary School Teachers:A Mixed Methods Study

Sajid Masood & Abdul Hameed

Examinations conducted by the Punjab Examination Commission (PEC)
at grade VIII are important as intended and unintended consequences are
associated with examination results influence the teaching and learning
processes in schools. A mixed methods sequential explanatory study was
conducted to investigate the effects of the examinations conducted by the
PEC on instructional practices of teachers at the elementary level in
seven districts of the Punjab. In the quantitative phase survey data was
collected from 521 elementary school teachers teaching in seven districts
of the Punjab selected through multistage random sampling. The
quantitative results were used to select participants for the study’s
qualitative phase through a maximum variation strategy of purposive
sampling. The quantitative phase indicated that female teachers
perceived more effects of examinations on their instructional practices.
Moreover, teachers belonging to age group 42-48 experienced most of
the effects of examination on their instructional practices as compared to
teachers belonging to other age groups. Similarly, teachers belonging to
district 3 (Okara) experienced more effects of the examination on their
instructional practices as compared to teachers serving in other districts.
The qualitative data indicated that instruction was driven by the
examination. Teacher-centred instructional strategies were dominant.
Paper patterns defined the instruction and tests were extensively
practiced in class. Teachers used strategies for helping students to
attempt MCQs. One of the objectives of the PEC was to improve
teaching and learning and in light of the present study it remains hard to
achieve. The findings of the study pose several challenges for the
examination board, curriculum and educational authorities in the Punjab

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